Most cars are parked for about 95% of the time and moving (or in traffic jams!) for the other 5% of the time. Without a parking space available at each end of the car journey a trip by car cannot be made. Planning design and management of parking are therefore absolutely essential activities for transport for towns, shopping centres, hospitals, universities and many businesses.
Most individuals, businesses and other organisations want parking to be provided to meet all their needs or wishes and want it to be free. For an individual developer, substantial parking for a new development has been worthwhile financially in terms of extra rent achieved. For an individual business extra parking can reduce staff grumbles to management and allow most staff (at least for those who have a car available) the freedom to drive, albeit at a substantial real cost to the business.
Despite the individual advantages of extra parking provision, managing and reducing parking demand has big benefits to all businesses in reduced congestion and substantial savings in cost including rents.
It should be noted that for many years, planners, engineers and politicians (planning committees) demanded that developments have sufficient parking to meet most personal and company demands. This was mainly to try and meet declared business needs and reduce parking on street. In the last decade or so (longer for inner London) local authorities and central government have become fully aware of the link between parking provision, traffic volumes on the road network and hence congestion. Thus they have generally become much more restrictive on parking space provision especially with new planning applications.
Many organisations with either new planning permissions or having expanded on a site have found their parking provision inadequate to meet their needs. JEC have made it a particular specialty to develop, plan and design parking and management systems so that organisations can still function effectively. An overview of the issues can be seen on the notes National Business Travel Network advice/Ways to work. This advice note gives information on the real costs of parking provision the need to effectively manage parking together with an outline of various measures available together with their pros and cons.
Website: www.britishparking.co.ukWestminster's Parking policies and reports
Website: www.westminster.gov.ukThe Local Goverment Technical Advisers Group